Both liquid and solid wastes are produced by every community globally and both require treatment. Liquid waste is basically the water after it has been polluted by a variety of waste products that have been generated through use.
Untreated wastewater should not be discharged into the environment as it contains a host of pathogenic micro-organisms that can lead to malodorous gases and/or cause disease and death. ON the flipside though, wastewater also contains a number of nutrients that can enhance growth of aquatic plants.
The correct type of wastewater treatment and disposal is therefore necessary in an industrialised society and must be feared towards protecting the environment. This is where wastewater engineering comes into play, using the fundamental principles of science and engineering to control water pollution problems.
While there are several technologies that do address the challenge of the UN target to provide safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation to all people on the globally by 2025, an integral solution still seems to be missing. This results in problems such as water shortages, loss of fertility, heavy metals in sludge, scarcity of nutrients and bio-magnification due to traces of medicine and chemicals in the water and disruption of the nitrogen/phosphorus cycle and eutrophication (excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; the decomposition of the plants depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life).
Sustainable solutions are therefore required to treat wastewater, and should include balancing the use of various resources, including their environmental, economical, and social-cultural aspects. In theory, design and operation of wastewater treatment facilities is governed by the relevant microbial/chemical kinetics but, the reality on the ground is mainly based on the experience of the people involved.
If we want all individuals to have access to safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation, then we need more innovative wastewater treatment solutions. In the meantime, safeguard your health by purchasing a mains water cooler with a carbon filter that will ensure that the water you and yours are drinking is 100% pure and healthy.